بررسی خاصیت ضدقارچی نانو امولسیون اسانس برخی گیاهان دارویی در کنترل پوسیدگی نرم توت‌فرنگی ناشی از Rhizopus stolonifer

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی-پژوهشی


پژوهشکده‌ی گیاهان و مواد اولیه‌ی دارویی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، اوین-تهران


هرچند قابلیت برخی اسانس‌های گیاهان دارویی به‌عنوان قارچ‌کش شناخته شده است اما ضمن دشواری‌هایی درکاربرد، دارای اثرات ارگانولپتیک (organoleptic) نیز بوده و در محصولات ایجاد بو و مزه می‌کنند. یکی از روش‌های به‌حداقل رساندن این معایب اسانس‌ها، استفاده از نانوامولسیون آن‌هاست که ضمن پایداری باعث افزایش خواص ضدمیکروبی از طریق افزایش جذب سلولی می‌شود. در تحقیق حاضر، نانوامولسیون اسانس سه گیاه دارویی نعنافلفلی (Mentha piperita)، آویشن دنایی (Thymus daenensis) و مرزه‌ی خوزستانی (Satureja khuzistanica) تهیه و اندازه‌ی ذرات آن‌ها مشخص شد. ترکیب اصلـی در اسـانس‌های آویشن دنـایی و مرزه‌ی خوزستانی به‌ترتیب شامل تیمول (8/64 درصد) و کارواکرول (4/72 درصد) بود در حالی‌که منتول (5/36 درصد) و منتون (8/33 درصد)، مهمترین ترکیبات موجود در اسانس نعنافلفلی بودند. اسانس‌ها و نانوامولسیون آن‌ها به‌همراه قارچ‌کش تیابندازول در غلظت‌های مختلف (یک، دو و چهار در هزار) در کنترل قارچ Rhizopus stolonifer، عامل پوسیدگی میوه‌ی توت‌فرنگی مورد مطالعه قرارگرفتند. به‌طورکلی، نانوامولسیون اسانس‌ها خاصیت ضدقارچی بیشتری نسبت‌به اسانس‌ها داشتند. در غلظت چهار در هزار، اسانس و نانوامولسیون مرزه‌ی خوزستانی پوسیدگی میوه را به‌طور کامل متوقف کرد و فعالیت ضدقارچی بیشتری نسبت به قارچ‌کش تیابندازول (83/85 درصد کنترل) نشان داد. بین تیابندازول با نانوامولسیون اسانس‌های آویشن دنایی و نعنافلفلی تفاوت معنی‌دار در کاهش بیماری مشاهده نشد. در غلظت دو در هزار نیز  نانوامولسیون مرزه با 50 درصد کنترل، تأثیر معنی‌داری در کاهش پوسیدگی نشان داد. در پایان، نانوامولسیون اسانس‌ها به‌خصوص اسانس مرزه برای ساخت قارچ‌کش‌های طبیعی پیشنهاد می‌شود. 



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