اثربخشی کاربرد هم‌زمان ریزوبیوم بومی و میکوریز بر پوسیدگی ریشه و عملکرد لوبیا قرمز (.Phaseolus vulgaris L) در استان لرستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی لرستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، خرم‌آباد، ایران

2 گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

3 مؤسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب کشور، سازمان تحقیقات،آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

4 گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم‌آباد، ایران

چکیده

پوسیدگی ریشه لوبیا ناشی از قارچ Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli، بیماری مهم و اقتصادی محصول لوبیا در ایران است. امروزه بهره‌گیری از روش‌های منطبق با کشاورزی پایدار و حفظ محیط زیست در مدیریت بیمارگر‌های گیاهی و نیز تا حدّ امکان به حداقل رساندن کاربرد سموم شیمیایی، ضرورت بسیاری دارد. این آزمایش جهت بررسی اثر کاربرد تیمارهای انفرادی و ترکیبی ریزوبیوم بومی، قارچ‌های میکوریز و مقایسه با تیمار شیمیایی در مزرعه در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 1396 در مزرعه آزمایشی ایستگاه تحقیقات سراب چنگایی با استفاده از لوبیا قرمز رقم افق اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل جدایه برتر ریزوبیوم بومی Rhizobium etli b.v. phaseoli با شناسه ملیCCSM_B011401 (R)، میکوریز Rhizophagus irregularis (M1)، میکوریزهای  R. irregularis+ Funneliformis mosseae (M1+M2)، میکوریزهای
R. irregularis+ F. mosseae به‌علاوه باکتری ریزوبیوم  R. etli b.v. phaseoli(M1+M2+R)، باکتری ریزوبیوم
R. etli b.v. phaseoli + میکوریز R. irregularis (R+M1)، تیمار شیمیایی کاربرد قارچکش (F) و کرت‌های شاهد که دارای آلودگی به بیمارگر، ولی بدون تلقیح ریزوبیوم و قارچ‌های میکوریزی بود. ریزوبیوم به شکل پودری با آغشته کردن بذور و قارچ‌های میکوریزی با افزودن به بستر بذر در زمان کاشت مایه‌زنی شد. نتایج نشان داد که بهترین تیمار آزمایش، تیمار ترکیبی تلقیح هم‌زمان ریزوبیوم بومی و قارچهای میکوریزی بود که تعداد دانه در غلاف، وزن صد دانه، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک را به طور محسوس و معنی داری به ترتیب تا 34، 9/24 ، 6/51 و 38 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش و وقوع بیماری پوسیدگی ریشه لوبیا را به میزان 89 درصد کاهش داد. یافته‌های این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که هم‌افزایی ناشی از تلقیح هم‌زمان عوامل بیولوژیک ریزوبیوم بومی برتر و قارچ‌های میکوریزی می‌تواند به دلیل کاهش چشمگیر وقوع بیماری و بهبود عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد لوبیا جایگزین مناسبی برای سموم و کودهای شیمیایی در این محصول باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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