جداسازی قارچ‌های آنتاگونیست از باغ‌های چای و بررسی تأثیر آن‌ها روی نماتود مولد زخم ریشه‌ Pratylenchus loosi در آزمایشگاه

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه گیاه‌پزشکی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه

2 پژوهشکدۀ چای، موسسۀ تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، لاهیجان

3 گروه گیاه‌پزشکی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

درحال حاضر در بسیاری از کشورها از جمله ایران، نماتود مولد زخم ریشه‌ Pratylenchus loosi مهم‌ترین عامل خسارت‌زای چای محسوب می‏شود. به‌منظور مهار زیستی این نماتود با استفاده از قارچ‌های آنتاگونیست، نمونه‌برداری از خاک و ریشه درختچه‌های چای در بهار و تابستان 1392 در مناطق چای‌کاری استان‌های گیلان و مازندران صورت‌گرفت. جدایه‌های مختلفی از قارچ‌ها از نمونه‌های خاک و یا از نماتودهای انگلی شده جداسازی و شناسایی شدند. این جدایه‌ها شاملPaecilomyces lilacinus (T1, N1, N3)، Fusarium culmorum، F. graminearum، Cladosporium sp.، Trichoderma harzianum (T1, T2, T3) بودند. آزمایش‌های مربوط به‌آنتاگونیستی این قارچ‌ها علیه نماتود P. loosi در محیط آب آگار 5/1 درصد انجام شد و درصد مرگ‌ و میر سنین لاروی و نماتود بالغ P. loosi در سه فاصله زمانی 48، 72 و 168 ساعت (یک هفته) بررسی و ثبت شد. از میان 11 جدایه مورد آزمایش، پس از یک هفته جدایۀ ((T1 قارچ P. lilacinus، با ایجاد 64 و 29 درصد و جدایۀ (N1)  P. lilacinus با 47 و 24 درصد مرگ ‌و میر به‌ترتیب در سنین لاروی و نماتود بالغ P. loosi با تفاوت معنی‌داری بالاترین میزان مرگ ‌و میر را نسبت به‌سایر تیمارها به‌خود اختصاص دادند. ضمناً در این بررسی هیچ‌ کدام از جدایه‌های قارچ Trichoderma harzianum در مقایسه با شاهد تأثیری در مهار زیستی نماتود مورد بحث نداشتند.

 

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